Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Semarang Golf Club (SGC) in Memories

Golf courses at Tjandi Sport Club, Semarang, later known as Semarang Golf Club (SGC) taken by E. Veltman in 1937.
(sources: nga-earlygolf.nl)
The current condition of club house at Tjandi Sport Club.
Golf as a sport has long been known in here Indonesia since the colonial period. The tropical climate makes golf in Java, unfortunately, to a seasonally game. During the so-called dry seasons, dry fairways, greens and grass is made it hard to be played, only a few peoples still continue to play. At that time of course neither automatic sprinkle to keep the grass greens during the dry seasons nor golf car to made the mobility easier invented. Therefore, the golf competitions in the old days were held in all the clubs in Java during the months of November to May, during the wet seasons. Until 1937, in Dutch Indies there were several cities already which have golf courses as follows; Batavia in Bukit Duri, Bandung, Semarang, Buitenzorg (currently Bogor), Tegal, Malang, Cheribon, Garut in Ngamplang all of them consist of 9-hole courses. Surabaya golf courses in Gunungsari, the only golf courses with 18-hole courses, but soon in the year of 1937, Batavia will built its new golf courses in Rawamangun, also in 18-hole courses to changed its old ones in Bukit Duri.

Date back in 1872, the Jakarta Golf Club was the oldest Golf Club in Southeast Asia. The original name of the golf club was known as the Batavia Golf Club and the founders were Mr. A. Gray and Mr. T.C. Wilson from Britain. In the early days of golf in Dutch Indies (Indonesia during colonial period) , golf barely only played by the British expatriates. Only a little Dutch people enthusiast in this kind of sports. But as the time goes by, golf became more popular among the people in Dutch Indies.  Also in Semarang, which is at 1895, the Tjandi Sport Club founded.  Located in Kanarielaan (currently Jalan Sisingamangaraja) which is in the guide book titled Semarang vooruit published in 1935, it described the golf course as excellent at not only from the standpoint of the golfer, but also in terms of natural beauty and listed among one of the best recreations after a day of hardworks. The Tjandi Sports Club were not only consist of a golf courses but also some other sport. There available grasscourt tennis and also cricket arena! Well no wonder its also mentioned that most of its member were british. Tjandi Sport Club have a short but interesting 9-hole course and its also a club house on the north part of the golf courses. Tjandi Sports Club got its historical moments while in 1901, the first golf club championship in Dutch Indies were held here.

The golf courses area, currently in progress to be build as a real estate, Green Candi Residence.
After the Independence, the golf courses in Tjandi Golf Club changed its name into Semarang Golf Club (SGC). Its remains to serves people in Semarang until 2006, when the city municipality decide to moved it to the bigger golf courses in Gombel hill. The plans actualy gained protest from the peoples surround it who most of them got the livelihood from SGC. But the plans executed anyway, the golf courses then unfortunately demolished and on the land above it built real estate of Green Candi Residence. Only the club house survived until today, but its badly damaged because of its neglected right after the SGC closed. There’s no guarantee also until when it will be still stand there cause its not yet listed as the heritage building of Semarang City. A sad fate for the place with a significance historical values where , the first golf club championship in Dutch Indies/ Indonesia have held!

Source: Golf Magazijn, "Officieel Orgaan van het Nederlandsch Golfcomité". 1e Jaargang No. 8, 15 October 1937

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Borsumij Building, the only Legacy of J.F.L Blankenberg in Semarang


Borsumij Office of Semarang in 1939, shortly after its finished. The contrast between the old-colonial architecture of Koepelkerk, and the modern art deco of Borsumij.
(source: Locale Techniek, 1940)
In the middle of 1938, a fifty’s-years old architect, Johan Frederik Lodewijk Blankenberg was asked by the N.V. Borneo Sumatera Maatschappij (Borsumij) to designed their new office buildings in Semarang. Blankenberg, whom at that time were the chairman of  Nederlandsch-Indische Architectenkring (NIAK), accept this offers. Here, Blankenberg as its requested by Borsumij, have to designs the office similar with what His fellow architect, Cosmas Citroen had done in Surabaya that had designed their office also in 1934. In His opinion, Blankenberg agreed that the Citroen designs for the Borsumij building in Surabaya gives it the best of the best of modern office building in Dutch Indies (Indonesia during colonial period), as it already addressed in advance to the maximization of space, function and natural lighting. 

The plaque in the entrance of  the Borsumij building of Semarang. 
The Borusmij building in Semarang, located in the centre of the Kota Lama area, in its main road, Heerenstraat (currently Jalan Letjen Soeprapto) and next to Koepelkerk, the landmark of Kota Lama. The building, seen from outside maybe just like another art-deco building built in colonial period but inside it, were remarkable.  The materials inside, its floor, wall, stairs, stained glass and pillars so colourful. The marble floors colour . The stairs decoration used the colour of Arabescato (creamy green with black veins) when the walls were in Rosso Levanto (dark red with white veins), both Italian marbles.  The columns coated in lead glazed black colored moldings, when the basement used the gray green granite plester. At the entrance, there were friezes and ceramic plaque stated that the first stone of the construction laid by M.C . Albert-Rauh, the wife of the Borsumij Agent of Semarang in Ferbuary 4th 1939. Construction was by the Firm. Ooiman and van Leeuwen in Semarang and after ten months, in October, its finished. The construction costs approximately ƒ 150.000.- (almost 12 billion rupiahs in the current value) for office and the new warehouses on the norths if the office.

One's of the Borsumij new warehouses building, located on the north
of the offices. This warehouse also designed by Blankenberg and built
in 1939.
Borsumij itself was a one’s of the major company in Dutch Indies at that times, its even considered as one’s of top big five companies in Dutch Indies along with Nederlandse Handel Maatschappij (NHM), Geo Wehry, Lindeteves Stokvis and Jacobson van den Berg. It was founded by J.W. Schlimmer, agent of NHM at Banjarmasin (East Kalimantan). In 1883, at a time when NHM shifted its attention to banking rather than commodity trade, Schlimmer took over the NHM facilities in the region and began his own company, Schlimmer & Co. In 1894 it became a limited liability company under the name of N.V Borneo-Sumatera Maatschappij (Borsumij) with its headquaters at 's-Gravenhage (another name for The Hague, then its no longer used after the city municipality start from 1990 to consistently using Den Haag/ The Hague as the official name), Netherlands. Beside Banjarmasin, it opened offices at Pontianak and Medan. The company came to hold a monopolistic role in the commodity trade in Kalimantan and Sumatera, related to the name of the company. As there were no large credit institution during these early years, Borsumij was able to succesfully expand its business. The company thereupon invested heavily in agricultural and mining estates, specifically rubber and coal. By the late twenties decade, Borsumij acquired large rubber sources and became direct supplier to Goodyear at Singapore. In the early 20's century, Borsumij also became major export-import company, and its made the company growth bigger. Borsumij ended their fate as big company in 1958, while its nationalized by Indonesian Government following the West Papua Crisis. The company then became state-owned company until nowadays, and its asset managed by PT. Perusahaan Perdagangan Indonesia (PPI).

Source: 
1. Locale Techniek, 1940, volume 009, issue 001
2. Commercial Networks in Modern Asia by Linda Grove and Shinya Sugiyama

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Siranda-Kanaal, An Old City Drainage System

Part of Siranda-Kanaal, in front of Taman Budaya Raden Saleh (TBRS) along Jalan Sriwijaya, or Tegalwareng Weg in the old days. 
Semarang has been long time well known as the city which is oftenly suffered from flood. As a harbour city, built in the vast swampy land, Semarang during the rain season, water overflow from its major river, Kali Semarang then its threatened the city. The problems then solved by constructed Kanal Banjir Barat (Bandjir Kanaal West) and then Kanal Banjir Timur (Bandjir Kanaal Oost) in 1900. The purpose of the construction of this two flood prevention canal is to control the water flows from the major rivers in Semarang like, Kali Garang (the sources for Kali Semarang), Kali Babon and Kali Bajak. But in the 20th Century, the development of Semarang  made it needs more livingspace for its residences.  The city developed to the south, to the area that was mainly ricefields and also to its hilly part of the city known as Heuvelstad. From the its newly hilly terrain, known as Tjandi, the new residencies area in Semarang, its need a new canal, to prevent the waterflows from its hilly terrain for flooding the new residencies area below it and also because of the waterflows when its rains to the east is still not in good condition. Then the Gemeente (eng: city municipality) Semarang on 7 November 1930, approved the proposal to the construction of Siranda-Kanaal. 

Maps depicted the plan of Siranda-Kanaal construction in Locale Techniek journals in 1937. 
Siranda Kanaal, built in the foot hills of Siranda hills, and its lies about 3 Km until its meets with the headwater of Kanal Banjir Timur in Peterongan. To built is isnt easy, its have to dig a lot due to its position when its entered Genoek Weg and Tegalwareng Weg (currently Jalan Sriwijaya) located in the hilly terrain.  The canal also consist of a tunnnel with the length about 700 metres.  The construction began in July, 1931 and finished in November, 1931 right in the months where the wet season is about to reach its peak. The very irregular structure of the soil in places where layers between various rocks even wet sand layers were digged.  The lorries networks also set up for the purpose of the construction of Siranda Kanaal to transport all of the materials which were taken after its dug off from its place, or to send a new materials for the construction either. Also, its equipped by ground lift, with 1,2 tons cappacity to carried the materials. The land above the tunnels projected to became the new cemeteries for the Europeans, replacing the old ones in Kobong, but its never realized. 

The Siranda-Kanaal during its construction in 1931.
(source: Locale Techniek journals, 1937)
The Siranda-Kanaal construction cost approximately ƒ 260 000,-, about 20 billions rupiah in current values. Half of the cost to construct it, funded by the central government. Nowadays, the canal still in use, and even in the 2015 its revitalized by the city municipality by strengthen its foundation also doing some excavation to dug up the sedimentation. But also, in the canal section nearby Peterongan market, the first concrete construction market in Semarang, above the canal its built three-storey building, known as Pasar Inpres building. These building, covered almost 200 metres of its canal, and actually its against the law where its illegal to built a building above the open drainage/ sewer.  Also with the rapid development of Peterongan market, the inspection way along the canal were occupied by the sellers, and sadly these canals oftenly became huge garbage dump for them. People always complaining while the flood happens but in the other hand, the awareness of not to throw trash in the drainage, sewer, and river either were so low. 

Sources:
1. Locale Techniek, 1937, Volume 006, Issue 003
2. Gedenkboek der Gemeente Semarang 1906-1931

Sunday, December 11, 2016

Bank Mandiri Kota Lama Semarang, former "De Factorij" of Nederlandse Handel Maatschappij

The office of Nederlandse Handel Maatschappij (NHM) in Semarang in 1910. Situated in the "gate" of the Kota Lama (eng: Old Town), made it one of the most famous buildings amongst other buildings in this neighborhood. The entrance under the tower is no longer exist. (source: Leiden University Library)
Ever been to Museum Bank Mandiri, Jakarta? This former head office of Nederlandse Handel Maatschappij (NHM), in the main entrance, its written on the wall “FACTORIJ”. Here in Semarang, once I saw also in the online archives of KITLV, mentioned this word also (factorij) referings  the office of NHM in Semarang. Dutch and English has the same roots, known as the West Germanic language, so the word factorij, I wondering if its also has the same meaning as factory, but I was wrong. In the dutch languages, factorij means an establishment for traders carrying on business in a foreign country, this word also used in the old days by the British but no longer again, as in the oxford dictionary explains. 

The lobby in the 2nd floor after the
renovation finish. Seems all preserved well.
Its make sense, since the NHM actualy established in 1824 by King Willem I of the Netherlands to promote and develop trade, shipping and agriculture overseas. The NHM actually the new version of Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) that went to bankcruptcy in 1799. NHM have a responsibility to expanding existing trade, as well as financing industry and shipping mainly to East Indie (currently Indonesia), the Dutch main trade route. King Willem I of the Netherlands of course have a vision to revitalized its glorious period of trade, like under the VOC period that brought the Dutch into its Golden Age. Then in 1830, the Governor General introduced the new policy called Culuurstelsel. Cultuurstelsel meant that the indigenous people lease 20% of its land to be used for products for the export commodities. These export commodities such as indigo (dye), tea, sugar, and the most favourites at that time coffee! De Amsterdamse koffieveilingen (eng: Amsterdam Coffee Auction) were world famous as the place to get a good quality of coffee. This also later became the background for the story of Max Havelaar that criticize the practice of cultuurstelsel as the indigenous people sufferings from that policy.

As the protest continues to growth, the cultuurstelsel then abolished in 1870. This started the new phase in Dutch Indies, that is the liberation of economy. NHM then engaged in financing and banking operations. Its even later became one’s of the top big five company in Dutch Indies, together with Lindeteves-Stokvis, Borsumij, Geo Wehry and Jacobson van Den Berg. In the late of 19th centuries, almost all of the major cities in Dutch Indies have the NHM branch on it, Semarang of course one of it. 

The view from the balcony above the
main entrance towards the Societeit Brug. 
Peoples oftenly calls it as Jembatan Mberok.
The building of NHM in Semarang located in former sites of Societeit Amiticia (thats why the bridge in front of it called Societeit Brug, brug=bridge). Facing to the west with a tower that visible from one’s of the Semarang major yet important street of Bodjong (now Jalan Pemuda), made it easily recognized from distance. The building start to construct in August 2nd 1908 as its written in the plaque inside the buildings. Designed by Prof. Jacob Frederik Klinkhamer in Netherlands, then He appointed D.W. Hinse to Semarang to became the inhouse architect who as the overseer of the buildings progress. The buildings has a beautiful façade, with a row of wide expresionism style of arch shaped were dominated the view of it. The buildings now owned by Bank Mandiri, the heir of all NHM assets in the whole Indonesia after its been nationalized in 1960. Bank Mandiri  actualy merged from four different banks in July, 1999, such as Bank Bumi Daya (BBD), Bank Dagang Negara (BDN), Bank Ekspor Impor Indonesia (Bank Exim), dan Bank Pembangunan Indonesia (Bapindo). All of that four banks actualy owned the assets from the foreign company nationalization policy in the late 50’s decade. Thus, made Bank Mandiri had plenty of heritage buildings, all over Indonesia. This company anyway, such a good example how the corporation should take care of its asset, which belongs to the heritage sites. Just like their asset in Semarang, this former NHM buildings, just renovated and its re-inaugurated this November, 2016.

Wish the others will follow the steps